Poneratoxin is a paralyzing neurotoxic peptide made by the bullet ant Paraponera clavata. It prevents inactivation of voltage gated sodium channels and therefore blocks the synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. Specifically, poneratoxin acts on voltage gated sodium channels in skeletal muscle fibers, causing paralysis, and nociceptive fibers, causing pain. It is rated as a 4 plus on the Schmidt sting pain index, the highest in the world, and its effects can cause waves of pain up to twelve hours after a single sting.
Szolajska E, Poznanski J, Ferber ML, et al. Poneratoxin, a neurotoxin from ant venom. Structure and expression in insect cells and construction of a bio-insecticide. Eur J Biochem. 2004;271(11):2127-36